Microphthalmia is a birth defect in which one or both eyes are smaller than normal, leading to a restricted field of vision. Microphthalmic eyes are considered to be a fault by many breed clubs. While microphthalmia itself is not particularly harmful, it is often found associated with more severe eye defects such as coloboma, retinal dysplasia, and cataracts. In the merle breeds, microphthalmia is also associated with hearing loss in some cases. Listed below are the known breeds in which microphthalmia has been reported. The condition appears to be inherited in many of these breeds. Akita Miniature Poodle, American Foxhound, Miniature Schnauzer, Australian Kelpie, Norwegian Dunkerhund, Australian Shepherd, Old English Sheepdog, Bedlington Terrier, Pekingese, Borzoi, Poodle, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Portugese Water Dog, Collie, Rottweiler, Dachshund, Shetland Sheepdog, Dalmatian Tibetan Terrier, Doberman, Toy Poodle, Great Dane, West Highland White Terrier, Miniature Dachshund.
The purpose of this study is to try to identify mutations that may be responsible for microphthalmia, focusing on a region of the canine genome that is thought to be associated with inheritance of this condition. This lab has performed some preliminary work on a microphthalmic Akita with interesting results, however more cases from this and other breeds are required in order to continue work in this area. Owners of microphthalmic dogs are encouraged to donate DNA samples for this project. Participation is free of charge and is easy, requiring you to only brush the inside of your dog's cheek with swabs that we provide and return them to us. If you are interested in donating samples, go to website for link
This work is supported in part by the AKC Canine Health Foundation and the Jaqua Foundation.
The disorders listed in the first 3 categories below are believed to have an inherited basis, or are known to have a predilection for this breed ("breed predisposition"). This means the disorder occurs more commonly in this breed compared to other breeds, or to the general dog population. Common sense suggests that these are inherited disorders, but for many breeds and many disorders, the studies to determine the mode of inheritance or the frequency in the breed have not been carried out, or are inconclusive.
We have listed disorders for which there is a general consensus among those investigating in this field and among veterinary practitioners, that the condition is significant in this breed. Where the mode of inheritance is known, this information is included on the linked disease page. The most popular breeds tend to have the most disorders listed because there is a larger number of dogs affected, and therefore more opportunity to recognize a breed predisposition to a particular disorder. As well, there is likely to be more indiscriminate breeding of these breeds, leading to a higher occurrence of inherited disorders. In less common or newer breeds, there may be no disorders listed or the list of disorders may be quite short, because it can take some time before enough dogs are affected to recognize an inherited condition.
The last category lists conditions that have been reported sporadically, and may be inherited in this breed.
Most Important these disorders are relatively common in this breed, and where possible, efforts are being made to eradicate them. These disorders seriously affect the health of your pet and may require medical or surgical intervention.
There are no disorders documented in this category for this breed. Other disorders which have an increased incidence in this breed These disorders occur less commonly or are less devastating than those mentioned above.
These disorders are directly related to the conformation or standards for the breed. Although these conditions have in many cases become so common that they are accepted as normal for the breed, they can still cause serious physical problems and discomfort for the dog. One component of responsible breeding is to breed away from the extremes of conformation that cause these physical problems.
There are no disorders documented in this category for this breed. Other disorders which may be inherited in this breed
These disorders have been reported sporadically, and may be inherited in this breed.
For more information about this breed - Borzoi Club of America Health Resources - Borzoi - American Kennel Club
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